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[100 Questions]Questions and answers on four-wheel alignment, the key to success or failure of chassis modification (Part 2)

Question 3: What is Toe In/Out-Toe? Looking down from the body to see if the tires are inside or out.

If there is a feathered edge on your baby car's tires, the cause is a very small number of tire manufacturing factors, most of which are caused by the error of your car's toe-in value. Toe-In/Out is defined as the width difference between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the two wheels on the same axis. When looking down from the top of the vehicle body, the length of the leading edge is less than the length of the trailing edge, showing the Toe-In. On the contrary, the setting of Toe-Out is presented. This angle affects the stability of the vehicle going straight, and this value also needs to be tested in the regular inspection of domestic vehicles. The name is "slip value", so you can imagine Importance of this value.

Generally speaking, the toe-in value is usually set in the direction of Toe-In when the vehicle is stationary, so that after the vehicle starts to drive forward, the toe-in value will sway slightly backward under the influence of tire grip and inertia. And return to positive to obtain a toe-in value close to 0, at this time, better straight running stability will be obtained. In addition, in order to make the rear wheel appear unstable, the toe-in value of the rear wheel will be set towards the value of Toe-Out, so that when cornering at high speed, the rear wheel will be able to easily reduce the speed of the vehicle. Toss left and right.

On all vehicles today, as long as the two wheels on the steering shaft (ie, the front wheels), the toe-in value must be adjustable, while other axles may not be adjustable, depending on whether the original factory has an adjustable design, The adjustment operation is to increase or decrease the length of the side pull rod. In most small cars, there will be a side pull rod on the left and right wheels, which is located on the steering machine. The inner side will be connected with the steering mechanism, and the outer side will be connected with The connection between the monk's head and the horns is what we commonly call the "rudder stick".

The mechanism for adjusting the toe angle of the front wheel is usually on the rudder screw of the steering gear, that is, on the connecting rod connecting the steering gear and the horn. Since the left and right sides can be adjusted, sometimes the toe angle is set correctly, but the steering wheel is in the vehicle going straight. A side-by-side situation occurs.
Whether the toe angle of the rear wheels can be adjusted depends on the design of the car manufacturer, or the adjustment range can be increased by modifying the adjustable link, and the toe angle setting is incorrect. In addition, if you find that you are reversing the car the other day, you need to always correct the steering wheel. The vehicle just went straight, it is recommended to take the time to check the tire alignment.

Therefore, in many cases, the toe-in value is incorrect due to the wear of the rudder rod or the monk's head. Moreover, when the original factory designed the steering system, the engineers designed the system to be almost horizontal, because this It will make the force on the side tie rod and the monk's head less. However, in some Low-Down situations, because the fixed position of the steering mechanism and the position of the pull rod and the monk's head are different, the horizontal angle of the rudder stick at this time will be incorrect, so the wear condition is lower than the low-down state. It is serious before Down. When adjusting the positioning, the toe-in value is generally enlarged appropriately, usually 0.4mm~1.0mm is added to ease the overall stress condition, but the amount of increase or decrease still depends on the driver's use. Car habits and ways to achieve the best setting conditions.

In addition, after the diameter of the rim is increased, the toe-in value must be properly corrected to reduce the difficulty of turning after the rim is enlarged. In the steering mechanism, the orientation of the steering wheel depends to a certain extent. Because of the toe-in of the left and right wheels, a situation that some readers often encounter is: when the vehicle is moving, the body still keeps moving in a straight line, but the direction of the steering wheel is shifted to the left or right. Although the toe value has changed, the Total Toe has not changed, so in practice, all car owners will see that the store only helps you to correct the left and right screws of the rudder stick to improve this. question.

After the diameter of the rim is increased, the toe-in value must also be properly corrected to reduce the difficulty of turning after the rim is enlarged, and the setting direction of the negative camber angle is also unavoidable without preventing the tire from wearing the fender. situation.
In order to make the rear wheel appear unstable, some tailgating racing cars will slightly bias the rear wheel toe angle to the Toe-Out setting, but the angle should not be too large, but it will be detrimental to the vehicle handling.

Question 4: What is KPA caster angle? Look at the angle between the shock absorber and the ground from the side.

The next thing to introduce is the caster angle, which is defined as the angle formed by the centerline of the shock absorber and the ground when you look at the car from the side. It is the so-called "caster angle", which has several functions.

First, the stability of straight driving: here we may explain it with a locomotive, you will understand it more easily, there are some American hippie cars in movies or TV (the handle is high, the front wheel is very far from the engine), The straight-ahead stability of this kind of vehicle is very good, but on the contrary, its flexibility in shuttle in the vehicle array is very poor. Therefore, when the value of the caster angle is too large (6°~11°), the stability of the straight line will be better, and this setting usually occurs in high-end RVs such as Double B and Lexus, while ordinary RVs or The setting of the caster angle of the sports car is relatively small (1°~4°). That is because the structural space and the different usage methods must be considered, but it does not necessarily mean that the steering is difficult if the caster angle is large. The original factory can be supplemented by other designs. to improve this phenomenon.

When the vehicle height is greatly reduced, the rudder stick of the rudder often cannot be in a horizontal state, which will adversely affect the steering response, and the monk head at the end of the rudder stick will be excessively worn under long-term use.
Caster is defined as the angle of inclination of the front suspension when looking at the wheel from the side of the car. The more inclined the angle is, the stronger the stability of the vehicle going straight, and vice versa is conducive to the sensitivity of the steering, the two cannot be taken into account. If the angles of the left and right wheels are inconsistent, the vehicle will deviate to the side with a larger angle when driving straight or when applying the brakes, which has a great adverse effect on driving safety.

Second, the resilience of the steering wheel: when the vehicle is turning, the load on the shock absorber from the inner body will be greater than the force on the outer side. The steering wheel has better recovery, so if the vehicle has poor recovery, most of the factors are due to the difference in the value of the caster angle. If it may be caused by "bad adjustment" or "damage of fixed rubber pads" in some car series, and on vehicles with non-adjustable caster angle, most of them are due to the collision of the body, and the sheet metal work has not been able to work. Produced by perfect restoration.

Under certain conditions, the vehicle will have a problem of unilateral deviation during driving, which is often caused by the difference in the caster angle. Therefore, in some vehicles, the upper seat of the shock absorber will be adjusted to a small extent. There are holes at two angles reserved for the upper seat of the front shock absorber to facilitate the positioning operation, but if the original factory does not have this design, please do not make holes in the body. This result can only be achieved by precise calculation, rather than the practice of "only treating the symptoms but not the root cause".

Different track environments require different tire positioning angles, and large-scale teams can usually record the difference in performance caused by different positioning angles and establish a complete database. It takes a long time to accumulate experience to find the most suitable setting value.
The more complex the suspension design, the more positioning adjustment items and angles can be provided, but the relative adjustment skills must be very strong in order to set the ideal fixed angle.

Question 5: What should be paid attention to when lowering the vehicle height or installing gaskets? Moderation is good for safety.

Generally, while the car owner is performing the Low-Down operation, most car owners usually also replace the tires and rims at this time to make the vehicle better control, but some car owners find the joints on the vehicle after modification, The wear of bearings and tires is much more serious than other vehicles with similar modifications. At this time, it may be because the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle has changed significantly. At this time, it is necessary to correct and change the positioning angle to reduce the cause. The abnormal wear and tear of the chassis caused by the lowering of the body height, and even sometimes require the use of special modification kits, such as rudder sticks with extended monk heads, to achieve this purpose.

Some riders like to increase the left and right wheelbases to increase the stability of high-speed driving and the aesthetic appearance through wheel spacers or aluminum rings with a smaller Off-Set value, but if the increased width is more than 5 cm If so, the tire alignment should be specially set, and pay attention to the problem that the life of the axle may be accelerated.

In addition, some car owners like to use wheel track spacers or aluminum rings with a smaller Off-Set value to increase the left and right wheel tracks to increase the stability of high-speed driving and the aesthetics in appearance. Generally speaking, if the left and right wheels are increased The difference between the width of the wheel base and the original factory is within 5 cm. Usually, there is no significant change in the life of the axle. However, if the width exceeds this width, the average force added to the bearing may become too large on one side. , and cause the phenomenon of burning, so the car owner should not change the Off-Set value indefinitely after pulling the "explosive turtle", in addition to getting the beauty, I am afraid that there will be too much blood loss on the purse, please evaluate the car owner before modification Look at where your setting target is before you go to the modification action.

Some modified shock absorbers suitable for the suspension of wheat flowers can be purchased with an adjustable fisheye upper seat. His purpose is to increase the adjustment range of the Camber camber angle. However, if the adjustment angle is large, the steering wheel will return to the positive speed. In conjunction with the steering response will be affected, need to adapt to drive the vehicle more sensitively.
The rear wheel of some vehicles is suspended with a trailing arm whose positioning cannot be adjusted, among which Toyota is more common. Therefore, when performing four-wheel alignment, it is only necessary to set it for the front wheel.

Finally, due to the development of information today, the speed of product introduction is extremely fast, so every car owner must have a certain concept to build his car. The angle of the chassis has a certain degree of understanding. Please discuss with the store more when the car owners are performing the four-wheel alignment operation. Please tell the workers your needs, such as: What height is the Low-Down of the body? When tuning the suspension system, what is your desired response? Are your driving movements most often on streets or mountain roads? Do you travel alone, for two or often with the whole family? Every car owner's situation is different from others, so what works for others may not work for you. To get a setting that suits you, sometimes it takes some time. Here I hope you can have a happy modification, satisfactory control, and happy enjoyment of everything that the chassis gives you.

Various positioning angles are different from the "factory settings", which may cause problems:

Camber:

The outer side of the tire wears faster

Poor straight-line grip

Poor braking force

Better cornering limit

Beam angle:

Feathered tire edges

Steering wheel deflected to one side when the vehicle is going straight

The vehicle cannot go straight when going forward or backward

Caster angle:

Poor steering response of the vehicle

Steering wheel responsiveness deteriorates

Abnormal abnormal sound in the chassis

Driving in a straight line is biased to one side

[100 Questions]Questions and answers on four-wheel alignment, the key to success or failure of chassis modification (Part 1)

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Dreamer is what I am, but unlike many, I struggle to make my dreams come true. I own, seo, admin and site editor. I am a father, married, Christian, Northeastern/Brazil and Libran. I love cars <3

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